Deep Foundations Load Testing Using the Top-Loaded Bi-Directional Test

The Top-Loaded Bi-Directional Test (“TLBT”) is a new method to apply bi-directional loads to a deep foundation element with the loading source located above the foundation head. In the TLBT reusable load assembly, loads are applied to the

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Top-Loaded Bi-Directional Testing and the Incremental Rigidity

An important objective of axially statically load testing deep foundations is to determine load-transfer behavior. Integral to this objective is determining internal forces at various locations within the deep-foundation element. These internal

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